BIOLOGY FLASHCARD

BIOLOGY FLASHCARD

Question 1 Humans instinctively like foods with this flavor. a. sweet b. bitter c. sour 0.5 points Question 2 This is how chewing food aids in digestion. a. By reducing water content of the food b. By increasing surface area c. By minimizes need for saliva 0.5 points Question 3 When you eat, your stomach secretes this substance that lowers the pH of stomach contents to a value of less than 2. a. lipase b. hydrochloric acid c. pepsinogen 0.5 points Question 4 Stomach ulcers signals a breakdown in this protective layer. a. saliva b. mucus c. pepsin 0.5 points Question 5 Which of the following meals postpones hunger by slowing the rate at which the stomach empties into the small intestine? a. a meal high in fiber such as pinto beans b. a meal high in protein such as a roast beef sandwich c. a meal high in starch such as pasta 0.5 points Question 6 What is the fate of fiber, a non-digestible carbohydrate, after it leaves the small intestine? a. Enzymes in the large intestine digest it. b. It is combined with protein and absorbed into the bloodstream. c. Bacteria in the large intestine use it as an energy source. 0.5 points Question 7 In the small intestine this substance aids digestion by making chyme less acidic. a. lipase b. bicarbonate c. hydrocholoric acid 0.5 points Question 8 Produced by the liver this substance is critical to the digestion and absorption of fat. a. Pepsinogen b. Fatty acid enzyme c. Bile 0.5 points Question 9 This food reduces lower esophageal pressure and increases the likelihood of burping stomach contents back into the throat. a. Coffee b. Alcohol c. Sugar 0.5 points Question 10 This explains why inadequate production of acid in the stomach reduces digestion and absorption of protein. a. Protein molecules stay tightly coiled and insufficient pepsinogen is activated. b. Protein molecules attach to fats and pass out of the system. c. There is no relationship between stomach acid production and protein digestion in the small intestine. 0.5 points Question 11 This enzyme begins the digestion of fat in the small intestine. a. pepsin b. bile c. lipase 0.5 points Question 12 This is a droplet of fat with a hydrophilic coating that allows it to remain suspended in the watery mixture of the small intestine. a. micelle b. chyme c. cylomicron 0.5 points Question 13 This nutrient is actively absorbed in the small intestine. a. fructose b. glucose c. lactose 0.5 points Question 14 What nutrient is critical to routine replacement of exhausted intestinal villi cells? a. Cholesterol b. Protein c. Vitamin B-12 0.5 points Question 15 Bacteria in the large intestine are a sign of infection. True False 0.5 points Question 16 The presence of beneficial bateria increases the likelihood that newly introduced bacteria will colonize the large intestine. True False 0.5 points Question 17 Chronic alcoholism reduces the body’s ability to absorp this vitamin that prevents scurvy. a. Vitamin C b. Vitamin E c. Riboflavin 0.5 points Question 18 In which of the following pairs is a major macronutrient correctly matched to its end product of digestion? a. carbohydrate and fatty acid b. protein and amino acid c. triglyceride and glucose 0.5 points Question 19 Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas? a. Secrete bicarbonate that neutralizes acid b. Manufacture mucus that lines the intestine c. Provide enzymes that digest fat and carbhydrate 0.5 points Question 20 Fat, carbohydrate, and protein are digested and absorbed in this organ. a. Stomach b. Small intestine c. Large intestine

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