Biological Approach to a Patient with Bipolar Affective Disorder   

The biological or pharmacological therapy was use for the patient to alleviate biological aspect of the bipolar affective disorder. In biopsychosocial, several biological factors are associated with the cause and progression of bipolar affective disorder (López-Muñoz, et al., 2018). Therefore, the biological approach to bipolar affective disorder includes using pharmacological agents or pharmacotherapy targeting the biological factors causing the disease and its progression (López-Muñoz, et al., 2018). As with the case patient, olanzapine was used to treat atypical antipsychotic bipolar affective disorder symptoms.

Olanzapine falls under the chemical drugs administered to patients whose medical conditions are in an atypical antipsychotic state (Carvalho, et al., 2020). The medication is administered at 15-20mg/day. Also prescribed for patients in the atypical antipsychotic state is risperidone, which also functions as olanzapine and is administered at 2-4mg/day (Carvalho, et al., 2020). The drugs manage symptoms such as suicidal ideation, aggression, and devastating impacts linked to impulsivity. Benzodiazepines calm manic problems, reduce insomnia and soothe anxiety (Carvalho, et al., 2020). Most bipolar affective disorder patients suffer from mood disabilities. Hence, pharmacological therapy is vital to stabilize bipolar affective disorder patients’ moods (Carvalho, et al., 2020). Pharmacological agents such as lithium have proven effective in mood stabilization. However, it has some side effects, such as loss of memory, increased thirst, weight gain, and slow heartbeat (Carvalho, et al., 2020).

Anticonvulsants, including sodium valproate, carbamazepine, topiramate, and lamotrigine, have also been applied in treating bipolar affective disorder since the 1970s (Rhee, et al., 2020), and were also adopted for the case patient to manage manic and depression. Research has shown that carbamazepine has proven vital in managing manic episodes. Carbamazepine effectively controls the rapid-cycling disorder (Rhee, et al., 2020). However, its effectiveness is much lesser than lithium and may cause dependency. Sodium valproate could also be administered to the patient to treat manic episodes, though some side effects are similar to carbamazepine (Rhee, et al., 2020). Since the patient also experienced some depressive symptoms, lamotrigine could be used to suppress the symptoms (Rice, et al., 2019). But lamotrigine may not be beneficial if the patient has a rapid cycling disorder. However, despite their effectiveness, the biological or pharmacological agents have several side effects limiting their application in treating bipolar affective disorder (Rice, et al., 2019).

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